WHO IS SHRII P.R.SARKAR

Shrii Shrii Anandamurti ji – the Author

A’c Vijayananda Avt

C S – MAY, 1991

{wherever it is to be re-edited has been done}

It was the 21st October, 1990. On this day, The Beloved Marga Bandhu Shrii Shrii Anandamu’rti Jii completed HIS Mission by withdrawing HIS advent of Mahasambhuti at His Tiljala resi­dence in Calcutta.

The day will ever remain well marked as a memorable day in the history of Ananda Marga.

The most- adored Bandhudeva of millions of Marga, devotees of India and abroad, the illustrious propounder of the multi-dimensional Ananda Marga ideology, the founder-president and Beloved Purodha Pramukha of An­anda Marga Organisation, the illustri­ous propounder of PROUT Philoso­phy, the famous exponent of Neo-humanism, The renowned composer of Prabhata Samgiita (He composed as many as 5018 songs till his last day on this earth), the pioneer of modern linguistics, the original propounder of Microvitum theory, and the supreme head of a world organisation spread in 181 countries, left the mortal world on this day.

HE withdrawn HIS advent from this world, no doubt, but HE left behind a multi-faceted ideology, a vast organisation meticulously -built up for over 35 years, manned by a large number of well-educated and dedicated Tantrikas, Acaryas, Avadhutas, and Purodhas.

He also left behind a vast mass of rich literature covering almost every aspect of human knowledge, born out of penetrating intellect and profound intuition. A good many people with farsight and insight hold the view that the ideas and ideals, dreams, hopes and aspirations of Shrii Shrii Anandamurtiji have the vast potential of effecting a radical change in our collective psychology.

It is a fact that the Ananda Marga members with developed intellect and intuition will in due course produce plenty of literature on Marga Bandhu’s holy life and profound teachings. Here we will try to analyse to show the Beloved Marga Bandhu as an accom­plished author.

In January, 1955, The Beloved Marga Bandhu first officially founded the Ananda Marga Mission at Ja’malpur, Bihar, right from its inception, HE began to write books one after the other and over the last 36 years, HE produced a large number of books in English, Bengali, Hindi and Sanskrit. Not only in terms of number of books, but also in terms of variety of subjects, ideas,’ and the style of treatment of subjects, he was an excellent author, I am confident the genuine intellectuals and the truth-seekers will be highly delighted to read his numerous won­derful books. Here I would like to throw some light on some of His grand books.

Yes, in this connection a pertinent question may arise in public minds. The Marga Bandhu, since the very incep­tion of the organisation in 1955, started his marathon series of literature. We see Him as an erudite and accom­plished author, so the question arises: Had He not written or thought of writing anything before he started the organisation? No, that was not pos­sible. No one can ever appear as an accomplished author without prior preparation. With this question in mind, I interviewed some of the distinguished members of His family. What I gath­ered in the course of interview with His family members, is that Shrii Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar (for, that was His family name) was a gifted boy since His childhood. He had an unusual interest in various languages and scripts. Even when he was only five or six years old, He could speak Bengali, Hindi, Bhojpuri and Angika languages or dialects at ease. Even at that tender age, He acquired a considerable amount of proficiency in English. He had such a wonderful memory since His child­hood that He could easily memorize the lengthy hymns and prayers in Sanskrit by hearing only once and recite them with perfect intonation and melo­dious voice. At the age of eighteen while He was studying at Calcutta Vidyasagar College, He regularly contributed essays, short stories, verses, songs and ballads to English, Bengali, Hindi and Urdu dailies and periodi­cals. His relations and friends were obviously delighted with His writings of His younger days.

It is also reported by His intimate friends and relations that He composed over one-hundred and fifty poems in English. Sometimes He would also by His hand in writing play writes, farces, and verses; but unfortunately, He was not in the habit of preserving the office-copies of His earlier writings. Naturally, those writings and pieces of composition were lost in oblivion. Only two master­pieces of His juvenile literature, which He composed at the age of twenty-three, (‘Nil sayrer Swama Kamal’ -”The Golden Lotus of the Blue Sea’ and ‘Nil Sayrer Atalletah’ – ‘In the Bottomless Depth of the Blue Sea’), published in the pen-name of Ran-gadadu could be traced with great difficulty, from a Bengali journal published in 1945-46.

A careful study of these two children’s books would enable the reader to conclude decisively whether the author’s age was twenty three or twenty six. Because, the subject matter, the style of presen­tation, the pathos and humors, the method of characterization, psycho­logical analysis, the narration of set­tings and the choice of diction will help a discerning reader to form a clear idea about the literary genius of the author.

Yes, that was the first expression of the literary talent of Shrii P.R. Sarkar, when He was truly twenty-three years old. That is my firm conviction that, had He taken to literature and music as His dominant pursuit instead of moral, spiritual, and social reformation movement in the later part of His life, He could easily establish Himself as a unique, splendid, and unprecedented litterateur and musician in the whole world. But, HE did not knowingly opt for that path.

Rather, He was in favour of adopting a life to guide millions of human beings along the path of morality and spirituality He planned for a multi-dimensional ideology to promote individual and collective welfare, and lead the countless spiritual aspirants with a well-thought out spiri­tual cult.

Obviously, He did not con­sider it noble enough to accept the life of a renowned litterateur and musi­cian. On the contrary, He voluntarily shouldered the responsibility of a spiritual Preceptor and social guide. We have to wait for sometime more for a correct appraisal as to how much successful He has been in the realization of His mission.

Yes, I was discussing Shrii P.R. Sarkar’s cultivation of literature at the age of twenty-three. As had been said earlier, young Shrii Prabhat Rainjan had tre­mendous curiosity in every subject under the sun. In Astrology and As­tronomy, in art, literature and music, in language, script and archeology, in politics, economics and social sci­ences, in philosophy, science and medicine, in agriculture and industry, He always cherished an insatiable thirst. Those were the days of Second World War. The whole world was trembling to its very foundation under the display of earth-shaking military might of the Allied and Axis forces. Young Shrii Prabhat Rainjan was then an employee of a Railway Office at Monghyr Jamalpur.

There were a few thousand employees also in the same office. Different people knew Him in different ways. Some believed that Shrii Prabhat Rainjan was a great astrologer, some others believed that Shrii Prabhat Rainjan was a great spiritualist. He was well conversant with yoga and tantra. “So, let us go to Him and enrich our knowledge about present, past and fu­ture from Him”. The contemporary youths of Monghyr, Jamalpur, and Bhagalpur were more interested in the on-going world war. They were rather curious to know about the respective positions of the warring forces, the future of Hitler and Churchill, the post­war Soviet role etc. Naturally, they preferred to visit their respected Prabhat da’ to get a satisfactory answer to their mundane querries. The elderly people thought that

Shrii Prabhat Babu, though young in age, was highly advanced in spiritual sphere. That is why they preferred to go to Him for nice satsaun’ga. The worldly-wise business-men were of the opin­ion that Shrii Prabhat Rainjan was an adept in Tantra – having mystical chance, paving way to get gold, silver and so on and so forth, if He grace us. Naturally, they preferred to go to Him if He would help them to swell their coffers by some tricks.

The eld­erly ladies, who were anxious to know the whereabouts of their dear and near ones living in overseas countries, would flock to Shrii Prabhat Rainjan. They be­lieved that, Shrii Prabhat Rainjan, by dint of His occult power, could give out the details of the whereabouts of their relations in overseas countries. Need­less to say, Shrii Prabhat Rainjan did not disappoint any one. Thus, all sorts of people, with different shades of opin­ion began to flock to Him. Out of that motley crowd of visitors, He selected a handful of people who were deeply sincere and reverential in spiritual practice and began to teach them the lessons of yoga and tantra, since 1939.

However, the whole process continued very silently, beyond public notice. Those who were used to practice the spiritual cult would hardly divulge it to anybody. Thus Shrii Prabhat Rainjan continued to move steadily towards the starting of His future world organization. In due course, the number of initiates swelled to over four hundred. Sometime in November 1954, He invited all His initiates and introduced them to one another. All of them became jubilant. With this first group of devotees, He founded the Ananda Marga Organization in January, 1955. Shrii Prabhat Rainjan, at the age of thirty four be­came the founder- President of An­anda Marga Pracarak Sam’gha and became the first propounder of Ananda Marga Spiritual Cult in the name of Shrii Shrii Anandamurtijii. Thus, in the early years of the second half of the twentieth century, the foundation stone of a small organization named Ananda Marga was laid down which in subse­quent years was to grow into a great historical socio-spiritual organisation.

The Beloved Marga Bandhu, Shrii Shrii Ananda Murtijii became the su­preme life force of that historical mis­sion and cult.

Yes, our purpose here is not to unite the history of Ananda Marga, rather, our purpose is to throw light on Shrii Shrii Ananda Murtiji, the author. Yes, we see that in 1955, a mission came into being, but what was its ideology, what were its aims and objectives? The mission had neither its own books and booklets, nor any periodicals. The illustrious pro-pounder of Marga ideology, had intro­duced two things at that very inception:

1) Dharmacakra

2) Dharma Mahacakra.

The spiritual aspirants of Ananda Marga would assemble at a fixed place on a particular day and practise collec­tive meditation (Milita lishvara pran’-idhana). Simultaneously they would also discuss the plans and programmes for propagation of Marga ideals in new areas. This was, and is known as ‘Dharma cakra’, whereas, when the spiritual aspirants of far and near would assemble at a fixed place for two or three days and organise collective satsaungh, spiritual congregation and the plans and programmes presided over by the Beloved Marga Bandhu Himself, it was called the Dharma Mahacakra.

During this spiritual congregation, the Beloved Marga Bandhu would deliver lengthy discourses on spiritual knowledge and philosophy, spiritual cult etc. Those discourses were carefully tape-recorded and later conveniently transcribed, edited, and published in the form of books. Thus, the Marga Bandhu, in order to present His ideology before the world at large in His characteristically clear, concise and conclusive form, pro­duced a vast mass of literature. As far as I understand, very few persons out­side the Marga are well acquainted with that vast literature. True, many authors write books. Some write stories and fictions, sometimes, over forty or fifty. But their writing is limited to the categories of stories and fictions only. They do not write even a single sentence in verse, drama, art, literature, music, science, etc. Some people compose a few lengthy verses or a couple of books of verses or a few books of juvenile literature or of essays – just a couple of books worthy of reading in the vast ocean of knowledge. But the authors capable of writing learned books, touching all important aspects of life are very rare. Needless to say Shrii Prabhat Rainjan belongs to the last category of rare authors. The present essay is a humble Endeavour to acquaint the intellectual readers with his multifarious writings and compositions.

ANANDA SUTRAM: This book under review is a philosophical treatise of Ananda Marga. This is a rare book containing 85 aphorisms in Saḿskrta and then a brief compact commentary written according to the ancient tradition of sutra literature. The author has thrown light on meta­physics, epistemology, social thought etc. The book is divided into five chapters, each chapter is resplendent with the glow of intuition, full of originality, clear and consistent thought, and based on the unmistakable truth. Those who are keen to know Marga philosophy in brief and in the language of intellectuals will find this book highly rewarding.

IDEA AND IDEOLOGY:

The purpose behind the writing of the book “Idea and Ideology” is the same as the purpose behind “Ananda Sutram”. In order to present the elementary phi­losophy of Ananda Marga before the English knowing readers, this book was written. This book deals with such important topics as the cycle of creation, saincara and pratisaincara (involution and evolution), the origin and development of life and mind, five fundamental factors, five inferences, ten sensing and motor organs, mind, pranendriya and propensities, the Kosa’s or five layers of mind, a’tma’, parama’tma’ and sa’dhana’, life, death and samska’ra, psycho-spiritual paral­lelism, etc., etc. The book will be of immense help in understanding the Ananda Marga philosophy.

A GUDE TO HUMAN CON­DUCT: The starting point of spiritual life is morality and the culminating point is the attainment of nirbiija -nirvikalpa sama’dhi. Morality is the foundation of the spiritual practice; it is not the ultimate goal. Hence to be established in morality is not the supreme goal of life of a spiritual aspirant. The mental equilibrium, which a sa’dhaka requires at the starting phase of spiritual practice, is termed ‘morality’. “A Guide to Human Con­duct” provides a simple and scientific explanation of morality. Spiritual morality has two stages:

1)   Yama, 2) Niyama. By the way, it may be men­tioned here that Yama and Niyama are the first two parts of Yoga (Yama, Niyama, A’sana, Pra’na’ya’ma, Pratya’ha’ra, Dha’ran’a', Dhyana’) Yama has five aspects: Ahim’sa (non-violence), Satya (truth), Asteya (non-stealing), Brahmacarya (ascription of Brahmahood), and Aparigraha (non-acceptance of non-essential objects).

2)   Niyama has five aspects: Shaoca (cleanliness), San-tos’a (contentment), Tapah (pen­ance), Swadhya’ya (study of scriptural books), lishvara’-Pra’nidhana (imbib­ing of Cosmic Ideation). The author has explained the ten items of moral code scientifically and psychologically in a very lucid way.

Hence, “A Guide to Human Conduct” is a very valuable book as it contains some basic guide­lines which are essential for spiritual aspirants in their quest for spiritual elevation in the initial stage.

ANANDA MARGA: Higher than morality is spirituality. To be firmly established in spirituality, one needs a clear spiritual outlook. For this one should be conversant with the basic ideas of spirituality from the very be­ginning.

That’s why, immediately after the organisation was set up, the Marga Bandhu wrote the elementary philosophy book, “Ananda Marga”.

The topics discussed in the book are:

What is Dharma? What is Macrocosm, Who am I?; Relation between man, and the world and the Macrocosm; How should the human beings live in the world; What is the goal of human life; the importance of spiritual cult, etc., etc. The author was guided by the sole intention of acquainting the readers with the primary ideas of spiritually and developing a healthy scientific spiri­tual outlook in them.

SUBHAS’SITA SAM’GRAHA (17 PARTS):

The Marga Bandhu, imme­diately after starting the Sam’gha, introduced two new things:

l)Dharmacakra,

2)Dharma Maha’cakra.

Dharmacakra is the weekly collective meditation of the sadhaka at a fixed place, Dharma Maha’cakra is an occassion for spiritual congregation of hun­dreds and thousands of sadhakas coming from all over the country or even from overseas countries.

The Beloved Marga Bandhu would remain present in those Dharma Maha cakras and deliver lengthy spiritual discourses, scintillating with penetrating intellect and profound wisdom. Those discourses were care­fully recorded and later, edited and published serially in the name of “Subhasita Sam’graha”. Needless to say, those discourses were rare gems of philosophy and knowledge of spiritual­ity.

They were: 1) Intuitional Science in Vedas, 2) Intuitional Sci­ence in Tantra, 3) Shreya and Preya, 4) Pravrtti and Nivrtti, 5) The Chariot and Charioteers (based on Sveta’shva-taropanis’ad), 6) Matter and Con­sciousness, 7) This World and the World Beyond, 8) Microcosm and Macro­cosm, 9) The Wealth of Expanded Mind and Spirit, 10) Ks’iore Sarpiri-va’rpitam, 11) Towards the Supreme Adorable One, 12) He Shining, every­thing Shines, 13) The Singular Stance of Devotion, 14) Na’nyata Pantha’ Vidyate Ayana’ya, 15) Five Types of Conscience, 16) The Supreme Query,

17) Human Life and Cosmic Ideation,

18) Spiritual Practice, Clash and Cohe­sion, 19)Sadhana and attraction for the Supreme, 20) Force and application of Force, 21) Ascension of Mind, 22) The Devotee and His Lord, 23) Tantra and Sadhana, 24) The Cognitive Faculty and Psychic Elevation, 25)Karma’san-nya’sa and Para’bhakti, 26) The Cult of Devotion, 27) The Ideation of Brahma,

28) Omni-active   Cognitive Faculty,

29) Sadhana and Madhuvidya’, 30) Mantra-caetanya. Serialised publica­tions of “Subhas’ita Sam’graha (17 Parts) were printed from 1966 to 1990. The books have been included in the sylla­bus of comparative religion in some universities of the world.

ANANDA VACANA’MRTAM (22 PARTS): Wherever Marga Bandhu would go a large number of devotees would congregate there. Beloved Marga Bandhu would meet them and grace them with important intellectual and spiritual discourses. All his dis­courses are meaningful and suited to the time and occasion. All the re­corded speeches were carefully pre­served and published in the series of “Ananda Vacana’mrtram”.

Once Beloved Marga Bandhu started a series of discourses on Deities:

Vaedika Gods and Goddes, Tantrik Deities, Baoddha, Paoranik and Laokik Deities.

Those discussions were highly interesting, and educative too. Those discourses are printed in “Ananda Vacana’mrtram” – llth. Part.

Likewise, the Marga Bandhu, in response to an earnest request of a devotee, delivered a series of talks on Krsna.

Each of those was fascinating. Later those were published in “Ananda Vacana’mrtram” Part 17. All the 22 parts are highly educative and ennobling.

TATTVA KAOMUDH (3 Parts): The Beloved Marga Bandhu would explain the basic ideas of moral code, intui­tional science and spiritual philosophy, sometimes from very high altitudes of intellectuality, sometimes he would interpret them with proper commen­taries and annotations, both lucid and revealing. He would expound his bril­liant ideals on body, mind, sensory and motor organs, nerves, intellect, plexus, glands, hormones, cerebral and extra-cerebral memory, acquired knowledge and self-knowledge, individual rhythm and universal rhythm etc Subsequently they were printed and published in the series of “Tattvakaomudii”.

ANANDA MARGA CARYA-ACARYA(3Parts): The vast mass of Marga Bandhu’s literature is divided into 3 main divisions:

Dharma Sha’stra, Dharshan Sha’stra, and Sama’j Sh­a’stra. Needless to say, the scope of Sama’j Sha’stra is vast.

Ananda Marga caryacaryas (all the parts) are included in Sama’j Sha’stra.

According to Marga Bandhu, Dharma is as much a collective affair as it is an individual affair.

The structure of a society rests on the solid foundations of morality and spiritual­ity.

Furthermore just as ‘Q’ and ‘U’ are closely related, similarly morality and spirituality are also deeply inter­dependent.

So to run the social structure smoothly, the social obser­vances and ceremonies must have a direct correlation with morality and spirituality.

From this viewpoint the Marga Bandhu has written his social treatises (3 parts).

The Part I deals with: First feeding of solid food and naming of child, Laying of foundation-stone, First entry into a new house, Planting of trees, Starting on a journey, Marriage System, Birthday -cere­mony, Social functions and festivals, Dharmacakra, Tattva Sabha, Jagrti, Disposal of dead bodies, Shraddha ceremony, Social relationship, Method of invitation, Dress, Livelihood, Economic policy, the Livelihood of women, Social punishment, The widow, Sci­ence and society, The ideal house­holder, Self-Analysis, Your various organisations, A’ca’rya board, Ta’ttvika board, Purodha’ board, etc.

“Ananda Marga Caryacarya, Part II”, deals with Sadhana, Health, Soci­ety, Different Vocations, 15 Shiilas, some rules and regulations, 16 Points, etc.

Part III deals with System of bath, Food, Fresh air, Physical restraint, Yogic exercises, Asana, Mudra, Bandha, Prana’yam, etc.

PROUT(18 Parts): While ex­plaining the main thesis of Ananda Marga ideology, Marga Bandhu said that for an ideal society six factors are indispensable:

1) Spiritual philosophy, 2) Spiritual cult, 3) Social outlook, 4) Socio-economico-political theory, 5) Scriptural philosophical and social code, 6) Supreme Guide or Preceptor.

True to his conviction, the Marga Bandhu has been propounding his ideas on economics, politics, sociology, history, and allied topics since 1959, which in due course became known as PROUT, an acronym for Progressive Utilization Theory. All His talks on PROUT have been serially published in the name of “PROUT in a Nutshell (18 Parts).

In this series of publications, the author has dealt with: The Evolution of Soci­ety, Morality, Education, Justice, Social Justice, The Judicial System, Crimi­nal Psychology, Social Psychology, Decentralisation of Industry, Indus­trial Policy, Mechanisation in Indus­try, Trade Union Movement, Co­operative System in Agricultuire, Industry and Commerce, Dowry Sys­tem, War and Peace, Casteism, Provin­cialism, National and Universalism, World Language, World Script and World Confederation, Social Cycle, Culture and Civilisation, Social Value and Cardinal Value, Dialectical Mate­rialism and Democracy, Isms and Human Progress, Theory and Practice in Social Reconstruction, The Theory of Selfish Pleasure and Social Equality (A’tmasukhatattva and Sma sama’jatattva), Prama’, Art for Serv­ice and Blessedness, Block-level and inter-block planning, Population Growth and Control, socio-economic groupification and movement, Women’s Rights, Democracy and Factionalism, Compartmentalisation of Democ­racy, Balanced Economy, Modes of Agricultural Production. Needless to say, Shrii P. R. Sarkar’s PROUT theory has been attracting intellectu­als both at home and abroad.

Books on language and literature:

1) “Lipi Parichaya”

2) “Nutan Varna Parichaya -1, II” 3.  “Tara Bandha Chara (Rhymes book)

4) “Neel Sayarer Swarnakamal” (Golden Lotus In the Blue Sea)

5) “Hatta Malar Deshe” (In the Land of Hattamala. – Juvenile Litera­ture)

6) “Hatta Malar A’ro Galpa” (More stories on Hattamala)

7) “Neel Sayarer Atal Tale (In the Bottomless Depth of the Blue Sea)

8) “Prabhat Rainjaner Galpa San-chayan” (Sarkar’s stories in 14 parts)

9) “Prabhat Rainjaner Natya San-chayana” (A collections of dramas)

10) “Prabhat Sahitye A’kalmand ( a satire)

11) “Vichitra Abhijinata’ (My Strange Experiences)

In the evolution of the human society, the value of literature is immeasurable. Literature provides food for human mind – a brain tonic. Just as bad food brings physical diseases, simi­larly vulgar literature pollutes human mind and degrades human thinking. That’s why for people to roam in the world of aesthetics. The mere collec­tions of ideas and command over language will not suffice. One must possess a sympathetic heart and under­standing mind saturated with penetrat­ing intellect.

Sahitya or literature has two dis­tinct roles to play. First, it will have to provide pure joy to the readers and secondly it must ensure well being to the society at large. Everything in this world is on the move – it is, moving along the divine flow of melody, rhythm, form, colour, and smell. Sahitya or literature makes this path of movement rhythmic and dynamic with the sweetness and aesthetic beauty, it rather makes the path saturated with a flow of bliss. Furthermore, it is not enough that literature should have the capacity of providing joy to its readers. It must also possess inherent capacity to promote welfare of its readers. It must be imbued with an inner zeal of ensuring maximum good to the society. Shrii P.R. Sarkar is very clear on the goal of literature when he articulates, “Arts for Service and Blessedness”. It literally means that all the flowers of aesthetics should be like a blooming sunflower, facing up towards the Su­preme Blissful Entity.

Human society is moving on and on in a cyclical order from one era to another. The end of one era culminates in the birth of another era. Human society offers a dismal look today. Art, culture, civilization, spirituality, sci­ence, moral values – all are in a state of abject decadence. It seems, all the leaves of the tree of society have turn pale and yellow. They will have to fall off sooner or later. At this critical moment of transition the rising poets, litterateurs, and artists will have to shoulder the responsibility to bring about new blossoms onto the tender leaves and the more one is adept in the task, the more successful one will be as a litterateur.

Shrii P.R. Sarkar’s first literature heralds the dawn of a new era in His all embracing philoso­phy, in each stage of His scheme of action, in every tune of His composi­tion, in His presentation of each of His ideas and languages has uses, in all His articulation in style of expres­sions. The message of a new age is conspicuously manifest.

The range of P.R. Sarkar’s literature is vast. Let us

Analyze some of His writings.

Juvenile literature: The author has a wonderful capacity to understand child’s psychology. And that is why He was highly successful in produc­ing juvenile literature: “In the Land of Hattama’la’”, “More Stories of Hatta-ma’la’”, “The Golden Lotus of the Blue Sea”, “In the Bottomless Depth of the Blue Sea”, etc. are the few master­pieces of His wonderful juvenile lit­erature. In taste and beauty, in providing pure joy and imparting knowledge to the children, the stories are unique and superb. To provide simple and innocent delight to the juvenile mind the author has rightly selected children’s favorite subjects, such as the princes and princesses, the ghosts and elves, the giants and de­mons, cats, dogs, honey-bees, choco­lates, cake trees, golden lotus and a variety of dainties and delicacies. The acid test of an adroit juvenile litterateur lies in His masterly style of analyzing child psychology against an equally ideal setting. While introducing stories of ghosts, elves, and witches, the author has used His pen so adroitly that not even an iota of fear is imprinted on the green leaf of the child’s mind. On the contrary, the ghosts and witches are so simple, sincere and humane in behavior that the little children feel highly inspired to make friends with them. The childhood is the proper time to plant seeds of knowledge of tree in children’s minds. And the author is very cautious in this regard.

Needless to say, all possibilities of a developed human being lie in a tender child. Hence, for imparting moral lessons childhood is the ideal period. The way the author has skillfully im­parted lessons on the unavoidable and dreadful consequences of reactions of actions at the earliest opportunity of Madhumita’s acquaintance with the Ekanar’e ghost, really deserves appreciation. Equally educative and psychological in the story as to Bangama’ (male frog) and Bangami (female frog) invented ways to enter­tain their honoured guests, and thus set a unique example of supreme self-sacrifice. No wonder, then, the selfish people of the civilised society today will bow their heads inshame. Equally worth noting are also some of the axiomatic truths: “Always remain engaged in virtuous deeds”, “Those who harm the human beings do not deserve to be called’ human’, “Don’t be greedy, try to be sacrificing by nature”, “Doing good to others should be one’s motto in life”, “Everything in this world is transitory”, “God’s will be done”, are some of the gems of moral lessons to the children. If the children are constantly fed on such high moral maxims, they are sure to grow as moral titans when they are grown up. In fact, a high percentage of Shrii Sarkar”s literature is value-based in tone and tenor.

Stories: In the post-Rabindra era, the Prabhat-Sahitya marks a new dimension to the literary stories. There is a considerable difference between stories and essays and novels not only in size, but also in quality. The compo­sition of an essay is somewhat light and at times, difficult for reader to digest; the fictions and novels are somewhat lengthy, the composition is a bit loose but it provides enough scope to convey many things but stories are simple, straight and short in size. And within the limited scope, the writer has to record the event or events as well as the problems and the hints of solutions there of unambiguously. That is why the appeal of short stories in the field of literature is quite different.

All the author’s stories have been published in the series of “Sarkar’s Short Stories”. It is not possible here to discuss in detail about all of the charac­teristics of his stories. But anyway we would like to throw some light on a few of them. For the purpose of under­standing, we may divide the stories into a few categories:

1) Social Stories: The author’s stories are mostly the gems and jewels gathered out of the experiences from the ocean of life. The plots of his stories are mainly commonplace events

that take place in our day-to-day social life. Hence, the stories are real and lively. And yet, the literary flavour has not been least marred by ultra-realism. Each of His stories bears an unmistakable imprint of His profundity of thought and artistic dexterity.

In the author’s social stories, a special characteristic strikes the reader. Unlike the- other writers, Shrii Sarkar has remained scrupulously aloof in depicting the vulgar exhibitionism of erotic love which is the tedious fashion of the day for most writers. The author has never allowed the main idea of the story become hazy or go astray in the whirlwind of romance or cheap sentimentalism. The writer has used the key of the adventurous world of romance as and when He has thought fit. The writer selected for His social stories plots right from the simple village life to the rockets and robots of the com­puter world. He roamed freely in all aspects of life, in all parts of the world.

2) Stories of the strange world: “Let me tell you at the very outset that I do not believe in ghosts and demons or heaven and hell, because I don’t see any reason behind all those. Rather, I believe that ghosts or elves, demons and giants, in fact all that is described as something unnatural is nothing but the play of mind. These notions and concepts arise in the different layers of mind due to various physical and psychic perspectives”. This is the considered opinion of the author regarding unnatural phenomena. The so-called unnatural stories and strange experiences of the author take the reader’s mind loan unknown world of mystery. Maybe, they generate a sense of fear, but this element of fear does not produce any psychic disease, because this fear is mixed with sincere love. The stories based on the author’s personal experience regarding insepa­rable relationship between life and death, the inevitable requital of unser-ved sam’skaras, the miserable plight of external bondages, etc. serve as a link between the natural world and the so-called unnatural world. “Niilakantir*bibhiis’aka” is an example of this type.

3)Mythological stories:

“Trishankur dasha”, “Mahamayar Abhinaya”, “Bandher Jha’mla Shivkeo Pohate hay”, “Phalgur”, “Tiire”, “Aks’aya Beta”, etc. are a few of the large number of the author’s mytho­logical stories. In fact, a major portion of Shrii Sarkar’s short stories is occupied by the mythological stories. Although the mythological stories are not factual, yet, their educative value can not be ignored by any means. This is what has inspired the author to draw on the mythologies for his stories. Most of the writer’s mythological stories are either known or well known to the readers. But due to the choicest dictions and the brilliant style of pres­entation, the stories have been placed to the readers in such a modern style that the readers cannot but be fasci­nated. Once they start reading, they cannot without finishing the story.

“Nama’mi Krs’n'asundaram”: Krsna played His role in two ways: Krs’n'a of Vraja and Krs’n'a of Mathura. The people could not be so intimate with Pa’rthasarathi Krs’n'a as easily as they could do so with Krs’n'a of Vraja. Krs’n'aofVraja was sweet and charm­ing and the sweetness is mixed with spirituality, whereas Pa’rthasarathi Krs’n'a was of a severe nature, but the external severity was mixed with spiri­tuality. In both of His roles Krs’n'a set quite good examples before the people of India and the world at large. The necessity of upholding those ideals and examples before the humanity at large has not yet exhausted itself even today. Keeping this stark relity in mind the author has proceeded to analyse the multi-dimensional personality of Lord Krs’n'a with His inimitable adroitness. The method of analysis is quite novel. For instance, the whole book has been divided in chapters, such as: Krs’n'a is One but in two roles, Krs’n'a the Ten­der and the severe, Krs’n'a of Vraja in the Light of Sam’khya Philosophy. Vraja Krs’n'a in the Light of Vishud-dha Advaetava’da, Pa’rthasarathi Krs’n'a in the Light of Vishuddha Advaetava’da. Vraja Krs’n'a in the Light of Vishista Advaetava’da, Pa’rthasarathi Krs’n'a in the Light ofVishis’t'a’dvaetava’da, Vraja Krs’n'a in the Light of Dvaetava’da, Pa’rthasarathi Krs’n'a in the light of Dvaetava’da, Vraja Krs’n'a in the Light of Dvaeta’dvaetava’da, Pa’rthasa’rathi Krs’n'a in the Light of Dvaeta’dvae­tava’da, Vraja Krs’n'a in the Light of Bhakti-Tattva, Pa’rthasa’rathi Krs’n'a in the Light of Bhakti-Tattva, Vraja Krs’n'a in the Light of Pariprashna, Pa’rthasa’rathi Krs’n'a in the Light of Pariprashna, Vraja Krs’n'a in the Light of Aesthetic Science, Pa’rthasa’rathi Krs’n'a in the Light of Aesthetic Science, Krs’n'a in the Light of Supra-Aesthetic Science. After analysing the divine rule of Krs’n'a from various Philosophical views pos­sible, the author analysis the personal­ity of Krs’n'a, who has become one and the same after coming to the supra aes­thetic world.

In 1978 the author wrote the 328-page book on Krs’n'a. He analysed the personality of Krs’n'a in the light of various philosophical doctrines. Besides that the author threw light on Krs’n'a and the six types of higher spiritual realisations, the Cult of Su­preme Self-Surrender (Prapattiva’da), the Cultivation of Knowledge by Pa’rthasa’rathi Krs’n'a, etc. In a word, this book on Krs’n'ologyisindispen-sible for higher research on Krs’n'a.

“Namah Shiva’ya Sh’nta’ya”: About 7000 years ago from now a great historic personality was born in the northern portion of the then Greater India and led the Indian popula­tion of Aryo-Mongolian -Austrika origin with his extraordinary in­tellect and profound intuition. HE was no other than our well-known Lord Shiva to whom the society, culture, and civilization of India and the world owe a perpetual debt. From the very beginning, we see him as a ubiquitous personality. Whenever, in the undeveloped and simple human society of those days any need arose, Shiva was there to help; whenever any knotty problem arose, Shiva was there to solve it. Therefore, we cannot divide and analyze his life and personality into fragments, nor can we write the history of those times in that way. At the same time we feel constrained to say that considering His unique role in building human culture and civilization, this culture and civilization can­not stand without him, but Shiva can stand very well, shining in His own glory quite apart from human culture and civilization. So to write history in the true sense of the term, for the sake of human society at present and at the distant future as well, Shiva cannot be ignored! Whatever is beautiful and great in our society, whatever has en­riched our society, culture and civilization with sweetness, purity, joyful vivacity of life has been His contribution There was no marriage system in His time. Shiva was the first to evolve and introduce the system of marriage and end a shameful chapter in human history.

He offered Tantra, songs, dance, and instrumental music, He taught the science of medicine…so on and so forth. All the major ethnic groups accepted His authority and united under His banner. Many people iden­tified themselves with His clan, all felt honored in His honor.

The author has systematically and scientifically analysed His superb personality and grand teaching in different chapters: An Introduction to Shiva, Shiva-both Severe and Tender, Shiva – the Focal Point of everything, the Pervasive Influence of Shiva, Shiva – throughout the Ages, All Bask in the Glory of Shiva I, II, III, Shiva’s Teachings, Shiva in the Light of Philosophy, Shiva in Dhyanamantra & Pranam ‘a Mantra.

The book of Shivalogy is the most valuable guide to those who admire Shiva and those who research on Shiva’s personality & contributions to human society.

“Liberation of Intellect – Neo-Humanism”: “The greatest human treasure is their intellect. What can be more painful if we can not make the best use of this intellect. Hence, the importance of the liberation of mind.

Prior to that there must be liberation of human intellect for the greatest enrich­ment of humanity, the intellect must be free from all sorts of bondages, from the shackles of dogma, from the various inauspicious influences. Till that is done the future of human race can not be golden. If we wish to walk in a golden door to humanity of today, then we have to wage a war corresponding against dogma and bring about total liberation of human intellect.”

Now a question arises – what is dogma? The author explains dogma saying, “The most dangerous thing for a human society as well as its progress is dogma. What is dogma? Where there is no logic, where there is no support of intellect or where there is no debate or discussion, but when there is forced im position, where people are ordered to obey some mandate without a murmur – this is called dogma.”

The author, in this book under re­view, while explaining Neo-Human-ism has explained in detail about ‘Atmasukha Tattva’ (the principle of selfish pleasure), dogma, psycho-economic exploitation; social, politi­cal, economic and cultural exploi­tation; geo-sentiment, socio-sentiment, proto-spiritualistic mind, demons in human form, metamor­phosed sentimental strategy and counter-strategy, socio-sentiment minimitis, socio-sentiment excellencio, internaionalism, pseudo-humanism, spirituality as a cult, spirituality as essence and spirituality as a mission, etc. Finally, He has extolled the virtues of Neo-Humanism for all-round welfare of human society. Human race has entered the threshold of a new era. At this time, we cannot afford to waste our valuable time by any means. We must make the maximum utilization of all the inherent capacities of the human race.

This universe does not belong to the humans only, it belongs to all. This age is an age of Neo-Humanism and with the cooperation of all we have to build up a neo-humanistic social struc­ture.

As   we have said, humanity has entered a new era. In this age various epoch-making events are about to take place. We must bear in mind that in human society, the age of dogma is over… human society is one and indi­visible. What we want today is all round progress of human society, and together with the human progress we simultaneously want the progress of the living and non-living world. Thus, what is needed today is the all round elevation of human existence, i.e. their physical, psychic and spiritual prog­ress. We want to bid farewell to dogma forever. We want greater rationality, which will lead the humanity towards the supreme entity. Only this type of Neo-Humanism can save humanity. The author, in this book, has sung the homilies to Neo-Humanism of this type.

Stratification of psycho-spiritual progress: Knowledge is of two types -mundane knowledge and supra-mun­dane knowledge. The realized persons – munis and rs’is although they consid­ered the mundane knowledge neces­sary, they did not attach the supreme importance to it; rather, they consid­ered the spiritual knowledge as abso­lute. According to them,

“A’tmajina’nam vidurjina’nam Jina’n'a’nyan’ani ya’ni tu Ta’ni jina’na’v'abha’sa’ni Sa’rasya naeva bodhana’t.”

The internal knowledge, the self-knowledge – the knowledge of self, and not of mind – is the real knowledge, and all other knowledge are only the reflection of real knowledge. The human beings, in fact, can not attain anything thereby. However learned or pedantic one might claim to be, he or she is only groping in the darkness of objective knowledge. They can not get at the real knowledge. For subjectivisation of objectivities the humans depend on perception, inference and authority, but these three means of subjectivisation are not totally reliable. The author has pointed out the imperfections of these three sources of knowledge, and on the other hand, He has made an in-depth study of acquiring the real knowledge. The whole process does not concern the relative world. This is out and out a psycho-spiritual affair. Here the au­thor, by means of His penetrating intellect and profound intuition has tried to explain, in a very simple and lucid way, sortie of the secret psycho-spiritual phenomena. Incidentally, He delivered fourteen discourses on dif­ferent strata of the psycho-spiritual sphere – ‘Yatama’na’, Vyatirka, Eken-driya and Vashiika’r'a. Those impor­tant discourses have been published in the name of “Stratification in Psycho-spiritual Practice.” This book is of immense value to seekers of spiritual knowledge.

“Varna Vijina’na”: The author, in the early part of His marathon re­search on Bengali language first wrote the book, “Varn’a Vijina’n” or the Science of Letters. Here “Varna” means letter. This four hundred and twenty-one-page book is a completely new and inimitable book on compara­tive philosophy. This book contains very valuable information on the style and system of pronunciation of Ben­gali and other Sanskrit oriented Indian languages. Besides that, many other useful chapters on spelling, syntax, phonetics have also been added. The chapters on specialties of a language, differences between language and dialect will be, in my opinion, highly useful to the students, teachers and research scholars on philology. The style of language, the origin and devel­opment of vocabulary in a language, derivation, emanation, and distortion of words have been discussed in detail. In short, this book is almost like a valuable mine of linguistic in­formation for the students and teach­ers of language and literature.

The Beloved Marga Bandhu, since the very inception of the organization in 1955 used to discuss Bengali and Hindi grammar and philology; but all of those were not written down. Years later, in 1983, when the camp head­quarters of the organization was trans-

fered to Calcutta, He started His mara­thon series of discourses on grammar and philology during Sunday general darshana. The series of Calcutta dis­courses continued from June, 1983 to November 6,1983. These Sunday dis­courses were later, compiled and published in the name of “Varna vijina’na”.

“Laghu Nirukta”: In the vaedic age, ‘nirukta’ meant a dictionary of difficult vaedic words. The author has written “Laghu Nirukta”, a light dictionary. Even those whose mother tongue is Bengali, are not fully aware of the general and particular mean­ings, the derivatives of many Bengali words. Consequently very often while giving expression to their inner thoughts, they use many words which are gram­matically incorrect. For instance, many persons wrongly use the word ’sambhra’nta’ in the sense of ‘abhi-jina’ta’ (aristocratic), ‘aparya’pta’ in the sense of ‘parya’pta’ (sufficient), ’socca’ra’ in the sense of ’sarava’ or ‘mukhara* (vocal), ‘mahasha’nkha’ in the sense of ‘brhat shankha’ (big conch shell). In fact, ’sambhra’nta’ means one who has made a big mistake in life. ‘Socca’ra’ means one who has passed stool, but has not cleaned one­self. ‘Maha’shankha’ does not mean a big conch shell. It means a skull. In this six-hundred page voluminous book, the author has dealt with over six thou­sand important words with deriva­tions and general and particular compendium meanings. In higher stud­ies and researches on Bengali philol­ogy, this is almost indispensable.

“Rarh civilization”: The Rarh, as a distinct race on this earth, have specialties in their society, culture and civilization. And these distinctive specialties they gained as a result of blending of Aryan, Mongolian, and Austric civilizations, borne by the rivers – the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and those of the Ancient Rarh. These distinctive Bengali specializes have been reflected in the social structure and religious beliefs, their literature, agriculture and industry, their architecture and culture, and even in their political ideals. The author in His five hundred page book has mentioned many important historical facts of Bengal past and present. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: Place of Bengal in Tantra and Indo-Aryan Civilization, Rarh – the Starting Point of Civilization (In this part, the author has thrown light on Rarh’s population, animals, language, literature and cul­ture, Rarh’s Script, Monga’l Ka’vya and Vaes’hava Ka’vya, Ra’rh’s Temple, natural wealth and climate, etc.), Gondawanaland and Bengal, Ethnicity of Rarh Bengalis, River-valley Civilization of Rarh, short history of Bengal, Bengali new year and spring festival, cultural relation between Bengal and Magadha, Angadesha, Mithila, Manipur, Arun’achal, Bhutan, Nepal, and Kerala. A brief outline of Bengal’s social history, religious beliefs, agriculture and industry of Bengal, contemporary thinkers of Ben­gal, etc. In a nutshell, those interested in the socio-economic-cultural his­tory of Bengal will find this book highly interesting and useful.

“Yogika Treatment and Dra-vyaguna”: The purpose of medical treatment is to provide physical and psychic relief to patients. Hence it is immaterial to uphold the prestige and dignity of a particular school of medi­cine as the main thing is to alleviate the suffering of the patients. Just as a diseased body can be restored to normalcy by administering medicine externally or internally, similarly, it is quite possible to restore the natural state of health through yogic exercises in a much safer and better way. The purpose of this book is to acquaint the public with the system of treatment of major diseases. Let the people be free from diseases by practicing asanas and mudras as mentioned in the book – this is the inner desire of the author. It is better that the reader should, in order to miimise the risk, first consult the competent teachers on yogic exer­cises. Together with the asanas and mudras, there is also reference to some

medicines inexpensive or less expen­sive but experimented and found highly effective. The system of their uses has also been mentioned. Some of the diseases discussed in the book are listed below: Dispepsia, Hernia, Acidity, Piles, Dysentery, Siphilis, Cancer, Leprosy, Obesity, Eczema, Paralyse, Gall blad­der stone, Diabetes, Elephantiatis, Hydrocele, etc.

“The Mahabharata”: The Mahabharata is one of the four best epics of the world, and history too. The influ­ence of this single book on the Indian population over the centuries has been phenomenal. Each of the characters of the Mahabharata is bold and lively. Directly or indirectly they offer to teach the human beings in some way or other. The Beloved Marga Bandhu, during his stay in Ranchi, gave a series of illuminating discourses on the Mahabharata – significance of the title of the book, Sri Krs’n'a- the hero of the epic; system of education, system of medical treatment, social structure, standard of morality of the Ma­habharata age, lord Krs’n'a’s style of functioning, some prominent charac­ters: Bhiisma, Drona, Gandharii, Vidura, Kuntii, Draopadii; evaluation of Kama’s character, Krs’n'a-the grand planer of the Great Indian war, Krs’n'a-the nucleus of the universe, Mahasambhuti Sri Krs’n'a, plan for the great universe.

“Varn’a-Vicitra” (8 Parts): Since 13th November, 1983, the Beloved Marga Bandhu has been writing books on Bengali philology and grammar. He started to discuss each and every letter of Indo-Aryan alphabet, and the series of discourses continued till the 1st September, 1985. These discourses were later published in the name of “Varn’a-Vicitra’” in 8 parts, running over 2000 pages. The author has analysed the role, pronunciation, genesis and mean­ing of the concerning letter. He has also shown how the letter has found its place in the original (tatsame) and derivative words (tadbhava) as well as in indigenous and exogenous vocabularies. He has further pointed out the role of the concerning letter in

Sandhi (joining of words), upasarga (prefixes), and biija mantra. Because of the variety of uses of the letters in words the series has been named “Vam’a-Vicitra’”. Not only in Bengali, in none of the world languages such types of books dealing with individual letters in this way have been written.

“Shabda-Cayanika”‘ (26 Parts): Since September 8, 1985, the Beloved Marga Bandhu started another new series. According to the author one essential preconditions for recognition of a language is its own vocabulary [the other conditions being (1) own pronouns, (2) own verb-endings, (3) own case endings, (4) literature, (5) Into­nation, (6) Psycho-acoustic notes, (7) Inferential acoustic notes, (8) Syntax]. With the growth of human intellect, the vocabulary got enriched. For instance, where there is enormous development in science, like physics, chemistry, biology, botany, mining, engineering, aeronautics, nuclear physics, the great scientists and profes­sors would keep coining new words to express their subtle ideas. The same thing applies to humanities, medicine, art, architecture, scripture, aesthetics, etc. Now behind the creation of any word, lies its etymology, its literal meaning and special meaning. For instance Buddha used to say, “Atta hi atta’nam natha”. Now if we want someone to be intellectually strong, we will have to introduce them to etymology and proper use of the term ‘Atta”. As per the rules of metamorphosis in Magadhi Pra’krta, particuarly in east­ern demi-Ma’gadhii, ‘Atma” becomes ‘Atta’. The author, the great linguist has dealt with a large number of such words alphabetically. In some cases, the discussion on one single word continued for 20-30 pages. The author conducted the series of discourses for five years from 8th September, 1985 to 14th October, 1990. This series is of encyclopedic nature. In over 6000 pages the author has primarily dis­cussed philology and grammar, secon­darily various other branches of human knowledge onto those who sincerely entered a new era. In this age various epoch-making events are about to take place. We must bear in mind that in human society, the age of dogma is over… human society is one and indi­visible. What we want today is all round progress of human society, and together with the human progress we simultaneously want the progress of the living and non-living world. Thus, what is needed today is the all round elevation of human existence, i.e. their physical, psychic and spiritual prog­ress. We want to bid farewell to dogma forever. We want greater rationality, which will lead the humanity towards the supreme entity. Only this type of Neo-Humanism can save humanity. The author, in this book, has sung the homilies to Neo-Humanism of this type.

On Music: Songs, dances and instrumental music, all these together constitute music. Songs are apparently related to the physical world but its vibration affects the inner mind. In music, just as there is idea, there is rhythm and melody also. Instrumental music is not centered around idea. The purpose of instrumental music is to vibrate the ectoplasmic stuff by vibrating the mind and maintain co­ordination with idea. Whereas the purpose of dance is to articulate the inner idea with the help of rhythm and mudra’ (body postures). The occiden­tal dance is primarily rhythmic but oriental dance is primarily mudraic, but it does take the help of rhythm. The author has also discussed aes­thetic science and supra-aesthetic sci­ence in this book on music.

Talks on Ideal Farming: We have already stated that the author had unbounded interest in all subjects of learning. Whenever any topic came before Him for discussion, He took pains to elaborate it before people. Hence, nothing was excluded from the purview of His cultivation of knowledge. The author was interested in guiding people to increase the quantum of products through scientific farming. His talks on farming have been pub­lished in the series of “Talks on Ideal Farming”- 2 Parts.

“Abhimata” (8 Parts): It has been mentioned earlier that the author was a gigantic intellectual and a man of profound insight. With His unbounded erudition and profound wisdom, he could delve deep into very many problems of society, state, morality, history, aesthetics, art, literature, language, archeology, etc. and offer His consid­ered views. Those comments and views have been published in the name of “Abhimata” (“A Few Problems Solved”), 8 parts. Each of the parts is a valuable source of information.

“Prabhata-Samgiita” (5018 songs): Prabhata-Samgiita, a grand total of 5018 songs marks the beginning of a new chapter in the world of music. On 14th September, 1982, the Beloved Marga Bandhu composed the first song of “Prabhata Samgiita” and wrote the last song of Prabhata Samgiita, a song on the proposed Ananda Marga Gurukula. In points of inner import, language, variety of melody and rhythm, “Prabhata Samgiita”, is brilliant with distinctive specialties. This new school of music contains various types of songs for instance – devotional songs, mystic songs, songs on social ceremonies and observances, patriotic songs, folk songs like Jhumur, baul, etc. Kiirtana, Gazal, Kaoyali, songs on Shiva and krs’n'a, etc. The author himself is both lyricist and melodist. He composed songs in 8 languages: Bengali, Eng­lish, Hindi/Urdu, Samskrta, Angika, Bhojpuri, Maethili, Magahii. The songs have been published in 20 parts.

Birds and Animals – our good neighbours: To Srii P.R. Sarkar, the great neo-humanist, human beings are the very dignified children of the Lord. Nonetheless, the lives of plants and animals are no less important. So the developed human beings have a great responsibility and duty towards birds and animals, their good neighbors. It does not add to their greatness if the humans follow the dictum, “The living are the food of the living “or” Might is right.” The very title of the book suggests the neo-humanistic out­look of the author.

“Prabhatranjer Vyakaraha-vijina’na” (3 Parts): This is a rare series in 3 parts on comparative philol­ogy and grammar. There is a vast difference between this series and the other books on grammar and philology available in the market. In the earlier chapter of the first part, the author has thrown searching light on phonetics of Samskrta and foreign languages.

Remaining chapters deal with leters from ‘A’ to ‘Dha’. Their role and uses in different words and sentences have been explained in broad detail.

The second part deals with the

Introduction of 10 new letters: etc. A very useful chapter on suffixes and prefixes has also been added. The third important chapter contains the list of errors, errors due to ignorance of etymology of word; anarchy in spell­ing, errors due to ignorance regarding the use of ‘Ba’ and ‘Va’ ; as well as nu­merous, errors in a variety of ways in over 200 pages.

The third part deals with the origin and development of language, differ­ence between language and dialect, the case endings, the Persian words in Bengali vocabulary, the formation of words in naming villages and towns, sama’sa, evolution, emanation and distortion of words, etc. The greatest attraction of the series is the 300-page chapter on root verbs (Sanskrit) and the vocabulary. The role of root-verbs and suffixes in derivation of Sanskrit orien­tal languages is undeniable. Even highly well placed people are found ignorant of the meanings of their own name. The main reason is the total ignorance of the knowledge of root verbs, suffixes and prefixes. Besides this, the author has incidentally dis­cussed ‘A’di’La’ and Antastha ‘La’, Vargiiya ‘Ba’ and antastha ‘Va’, the rules regarding exact uses of N’a, Na, short ‘i’, long ‘II’, long RR, long ‘Lrr’, etc. In a word, those who are keen to study Bengali grammar and philology will find plenty of guidance from this series.

Besides these books, a few manu­scripts of the author are waiting for publication. I wonder how it was hu­manly possible for one person to build and lead a worldwide organization; to provide moral and spiritual guidance to millions of devotees, and at the same time, to write a large number of books on such mind-boggling range of sub­jects.

The Marga Bandhu has made that impossible possible. This is my earnest appeal to all the genuine intellectuals of the world that they should thoroughly study the great thoughts and ideals of Beloved Shrii P.R. Sarkar with an open mind.