NAMAMI KRSNA SUNDARAM – Part 1, 2, 3, 4…


Krśńa and Prapattiváda – 1 (Discourse 4)[corrected from another source]
14 September 1980, Calcutta

In the field of human intellect and intuition, there is a nice idea – the idea of Prapatti. In the light of this idea of PRAPATTI we shall analyze the roles of Krśńa of Vraja and Párthasárathi Krśńa.

As in the realm of spirituality and philosophy in India, the importance of this PRAPATTIVÁDA [the doctrine of prapatti] is very great.

“Philosophy” is a Latin term; the Arabic equivalent is PHALSAPHÁ, and DARSHANA is the Samskrta term.

Philosophy is the theoretical aspect of Actional flow.

What should we do? Why and how we should do things – these are what constitute the scope and subject matter of Philosophy.

From the perusal of ancient history of India, we came to know that Sadáshiva was born in India over 7000(seven thousand) years ago.

People of those days were not advanced in intellect. It is futile to say something to a person of undeveloped intellect.

That would be a mere waste of time for both – for him who does not grasp it and for him who explains the philosophy.

When human intellect gets developed enough, then people understand it.

While trying, to unite the scattered human groups  under a well-knit social system, Lord Shiva marked that for the advancement of humanity, the essential pre-requisite was the spiritual progress, and that in its turn, required awakening of a spiritual urge.

Lord Shiva did awaken that spiritual urge in Mankind of His times and He taught them also the Spiritual Dance – the Táńd́ava.

Párvatii gave them the Lalita Mármika Dance.

Again He taught Maharshi Dhanvantari — the vaedyaka shástra(the science of Medicine).

Here one should remember the difference between Vaedyaka shástra and the áyurveda shástra( another school of medicine).

The school of medicine, that depends on the Vedas is called Áyurveda, and the Tantra-oriented School of medicine is called Vaedyaka shástra.

In Bengal, the Vaedyaka shástra is more popular than Áyurveda.

Then again Lord Shiva taught Maharshi Bharata – the science of Music – (Nrtya, Giita and Vádya) [dance, song and percussion music].

Thus He opened the various channels for expression of human intellect and wisdom.

But He did not provide any philosophy, because the people of those days were not developed to that intellectual height.

But whether developed or undeveloped from philosophical point of view, everyone was entitled to spiritual Sádhaná, everyone could get to that supreme rank of spirituality.

One may or may know the three R’s, but still one can attain Parama Purusa by dint of spiritual cult.

Rather, who were dabbling in philosophical confabulations, were just confusing the people’s minds, misguiding the masses, so thought Lord Shiva.

(Of course there was no recognized philosopher till Shiva’s time. Much later than Shiva, emerged Maharshi Kapila, the first recognized philosopher on this earth, emerged much later than Shiva. Manbhuma was his birth place. Kapila was born at a place near Jhalda in the district of Purulia in West Bengal, and he did his penance, his meditation at Gangasagar in Sagar-dwipa.)

Common people can’t understand the philosophical intricacies. Some philosophers say “A”, someone says “AU”, and so on and so forth.

For instance, a single letter of English alphabet ‘A’ has got 21(twenty-one) types of pronunciation.

Suppose a kindergarten child is taught twenty-one types of pronunciation by 21(twenty-one) teachers, the child is bound to get lost/ confused/or to be at a loss. One should learn all these things step by step. A-N-T/ANT has one type of pronunciation but ELEPHANT has a different pronunciation.

Regarding these philosophers who were selling out philosophical ideas to the common people, Lord Shiva branded them as “Lokavyámohakárakáh”. Loka means “the world”, vyámoha means “disease”, and kárakáh means those who inject these so-called philosophies. So thought, Lord Shiva and HE drove them away from the society.

Much later than Lord Shiva and some time before Lord Krśńa’s advent came Maharsi Kapila who propounded his school of philosophical ideas, elaborating his philosophy regarding creation and evolution through 24( twenty-four) principles.

These 24(twenty-four) principles were there at the beginning of creation – not one or two or four, but a total of 24(twenty-four).

As Maharshi Kapila fixed the total number of principles at 24, hence his school of Philosophy came to be known as “Sáḿkhya”.

In fact, in his Sáḿkhya philosophy, Kapila did not say anything about Parama Puruśa. After saying all that Kapila had to say by way of elaborating his philosophical view – he said, “Sure enough, there is one Supreme Entity – the Creator of this universe. To that Entity I give the name Janya Iishvara.” “Janya means “for”, here the implication is “For the creation.”].) This much Kapila said.

This exposition of Sáḿkhya philosophy caused some whispering, some murmuring, among the elite during Kapila’s time and afterwards. They wondered, how Kapila, the greatest scholar of the age, long cogitated over the mysteries of creation, and formulated those 24(twenty-four) principles and the concept of JANYA IISHVARA, yet strangely enough utterly failed to elaborate or did not clear the concept further. He said, “Sorry, I can’t say any more than what I have already said.”

Some of the people then began to think and ponder that the intellect with which Kapila had invented his philosophical doctrine, that  intellect was provided by no other entity, but that JANYA IISHVARA. So to say anything about the JANYA IISHVARA was naturally remained beyond the intellectual capacity of Kapila. This sort of philosophical whispering became vocalized in later periods.

They had been bold to say, “No, Kapila is not right – he is wrong in his philosophical assertions.

How could he say anything about the Creator, without whose will not even a blade of grass can move?

How could Kapila dare to pronounce anything about that Supreme Entity?” Thus arose a philosophical idea – the idea of PRAPATTIVÁDA, as it is called today.

And sure enough, in the wake of this PRAPATTIVÁDA, came its antithesis, the idea of VIPRAPATTI.

Also came APRAPATTI, who neither supported or opposed PRAPATTIVÁDA.

The Shaivites – those who pursued the Shiva cult – were instructed by Lord Shiva to steer clear of any philosophical confabulations by Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva had announced that the world would have the right sort of philosophy at the opportune time, and it was pointless to bother about the so-called philosophy and they were APRAPATTIVÁDIIS, that is, they were neither supporters or opponent of PRAPATTIVÁDA.

The proponents of VIPRAPATTIVÁDA were already against PRAPATTIVÁDA. But of all the doctorines, PRAPATTIVÁDA was more favoured by the people.

Lord Krśńa had His birth against this philosophical background.

Chiefly Krsna was not a philosopher: He was a pragmatic man, a practical personality – in both of His roles, both as Krśńa of Vraja and Párthasárathi Krśńa, Prapattiváda.

The doctrine of Prapatti or Prapattiva’da, which received special support directly or indirectly from Lord Krśńa, found a permanent place in BHÁGAVATA SHÁSTRA, which evolved in much a later date.

By the study of Samskrta language, one can easily infer as to which composition was more ancient and which was recent and thus can determine the period of the composition.

If we find “IDA’M NAS DHÁMAH”, we should immediately conclude that this was 12,000 years old composition—the language is Rkvedian.

But if we find “IDAḾ ASMÁKAḾ GRHAḾ ASTI”, we could conclude that it is 1500 years old Samskrta at the most.

The language pattern of the BHÁGAVATA SHÁSTRA clearly indicates that the scripture was composed much later than LORD KRŚŃA’S time.

This spiritual scripture has given a direct recognition, a clear recognition of PRAPATTIVÁDA.

Now let us analyse what shape this PRAPATTIVÁDA has assumed in the hands of Krśńa of Vraja and Pártha Sárathi KRŚŃA.

The Vaishnavism, or the cult of devotion, chiefly rests on the idea of PRAPATTI.

In the initial stage, the faculty of knowledge or actional faculty throw up a challenge to PRAPATTI  but finally, in the end, give in with these words “I just put up a façade of resistance. In my heart of hearts I accept your supremacy.”

The word PRAPATTI is derived ‘PRA’ – ‘PAT’ root + KTIN suffix.

PRAPATTI means complete surrender.

The inner spirit of PRAPATTI is that whatever is taking place in the universe is all due to the Cosmic will.

Without the Cosmic will nothing can happen.

Now that we are pursuing the path of righteousness – this is also due to the

Cosmic will.

Had Parama Purusa willed otherwise, things would have been different.

Hence the Cosmic will is at the root of each and every action.

Hence we should say, “O Lord, Thy will be done.

I am a machine. You utilize this machine that is me in any way as You like. I am nothing but a mere tool in your hands.” This is the spirit of PRAPATTIVÁDA. This inner spirit of PRAPATTI is nicely reflected in a modern Bengali song:

Sakali tomár icchá icchámayii tárá tumi;

Tomár karma tumi karo má loke bole kari ámi.

[All that is happening is Your own thought-projection. Whatever You wish to do becomes implemented. It is You who do everything. People foolishly claim the credit for doing things.]

Though the song was composed by a follower of the Shakti Cult, yet it represents perfectly the spirit of Vaishnavism. The idea is more in conformity with Vaeśńaviiya [Vaishnavite] prapattiváda than with the Shakti Cult.

But, this is not the subject of the discourse here, or else I would have pointed out how the Shakti cult was influenced by the doctrine of Vaishnavism. This is PRAPATTIVÁDA.

Krśńa of Vraja does not say anything verbally about PRAPATTI.

But all His actions, His behaviour, musical notes from His proverbial flute, His call to the masses – all these clearly reflect the spirit of PRAPATTIVÁDA – but He abstains from vocalizing His approval for PRAPATTIVÁDA. At the same time, He desists from speaking anything for or against the faculties of jiṋána(knowledge) and karma(action). But nevertheless He is making the people to float in the stream of devotion.

Krśńa is playing the most regaling notes on His flute. The wave of ideation from His musical playing, the trough and crest of the waves resulting therefrom – are flowing and reaching the innermost recesses of the mind, and arouse a responsive ideation in the devotees minds. They feel that the flute sound is calling me and me only – and I can not afford to ignore the flute sound and stay indoors. The flute is calling me by name.”

So human beings rushes and moves on. How man moves?

He moves on according to the vibrational waves and inspiration that are reaching in his inner core of his mind and soul, emanating out of the mind of the VRHATA.

Those billows – those waves drive the jiivas and bring him/her to the proximity of VRHATA(Boundless Entity). That is to say, the musical not of the flute as it is emerging out, shakes the mind of the sádhaka according  to which he/she echos and vibrates.

This resounding is nothing but prapattiváda.

Here there is no scope for jiṋána(knowledge) nor there is any pause for karma(action). Here mobility is the only task – the only dharma.

The way He is calling me – I am to move accordingly.” This state of mind is one of the sweetest states, the madhura guńa [sweet quality] of prapattiváda.

Because “I am rushing ahead due to the sweet call of His flute and entering into His sweetened and blissful environment.” Hence for Krśńa of Vraja, there is no need for interpreting the faculties of knowledge or action — there is no scope for fighting about the philosophical confabulations.

Only complete PRAPATTI is there, and once it shakes the jiiva and his/her mind, he/she can no longer stay indoor anymore — one rushes out and starts running after Him.

Chot́e ye jan bánshiir t́áne

Se ki tákáy pather páne?

[One who runs after the sound of the flute – can he/she ever bother about the road?]

Human beings is moving ahead – he/she does not bother about whether he/she has stumbled on or has fallen on the ground, — whether the limbs have become bloody with cuts and scratches or not. The jiiva does not care – he/she has no repause. This is the Krśńa of Vraja – who, though directly a PRAPATTIVÁDII, has never uttered anything verbally about PRAPATTI. Influenced by such a PRAPATTIVÁDII doctrine, the devotees of Lord Krśńa of Vraja sang:

Yashodá-Nanda nandakaḿ, Surendrapáda Gandhanam;

Suvarńaratna Mańd́alaḿ – Namámi Krśńasundaram.

Bhavámbika’ra dháranaḿ, Bhayárthanása Kárakam;

Mumukśa Moksa dáyakam – Namámi Krśńasundaram.

[Salutations to Krśńa the Beautiful, who was an object of delight to Mother Yashoda, whose lotus feet were worshipped by the gods, and whose body was adorned with precious gems. Salutations to Krśńa the Beautiful, who was the most reliable helmsman on the ocean of this universe, who removed the fear of annihilation, who granted salvation to aspiring souls.]

This is the very Krśńa who, by playing His magic flute, has made us all mad, has pulled us up to Him, has given us hope and offered us assurance, has granted us a refuge of safety within His surroundings. This Krśńa is delivering the human beings from all sorts of fears and will continue to do so in future too. He has given and is also giving all kinds of hopes for the mankind.

Mumukśu mukti dáyakam – “if any human being begs for mokśa [non-qualified liberation] from this Krśńa, He will surely grant him that mokśa,” for He is capable of granting mokśa to the Mankind. I salute this Krśńa of Vraja.

But what about my Párthasárathi Krśńa?

He has given the Mankind the inspiration for workm – He is supplying the desire for doing karma – HE is saying – What is HE saying?

That you have got your hands and feet, you have got a body. Do use them. Go on doing your duty. Your body is an excellent machine, use it deftly. If you do not make use of it properly, then you will be doing something unworthy of you. Do your job. Do your duty.

In doing your duty, sometimes people succeed, sometimes they will do not. If you do not succeed, never get frustrated. You must remember that doing your duty, for your right lies in attending your job properly, you need not bother about or await for the result. You only have your right and duty to attend to your job – the result is not in your hand. You have your body and you have your work in your hand – use them and do your job. If you show negligence to your work entrusted in your hand by worrying about the result, then the work will not be properly done. Hence do your duty – which is your birth right. This is karmaváda [the doctrine of action] to the extreme – karmaváda per excellence.