This is the era of science and technology. Human beings have reached to the moon and other planets. But humanity is bewildered. The young generation is confused about their role in the society and their goal as human beings. Modern intellectual capacity is too weak to solve the complex problems of this era.
All the educational institutions, mass media, television, theatre are controlled by vested interest.
They are influencing people’s psychology to safeguard their class interest.
What are the criteria of modern intellectuality?
It is nothing but a collection of unrelated information, which has no relation with the harmonious need of society.
Education in universities is stereo-typed and certificate oriented. A psychology has been created declaring this age as the age of specialization. This created a psychology of inferiority complex.
One is not supposed to comment on the subject in which one is not specialized.
Thus the arena of politics and economics is becoming more confined to a particular number of people and this in turn is creating a privileged clan.
Modern Youth and students must be aware of such psychic exploitation and fight against it on all fronts.
It is improper to think that everything in India has come from abroad. I have told you that Bhaskaracarya first discovered that the earth was round, and not Copernicus. That the earth is moving was first discovered by Bhaskaracarya and not by Galileo. The law of gravitation was first discovered by Bhaskaracarya and not by Newton. We give incorrect training to children.
In Krs’n'a’s time philosophy was undeveloped.
Even though the sage Maharshi Kapila had been born before Lord Krs’n'a, his philosophical ideas had not been elaborated on, commented on, annotated, etc.
The great Sa’m'khya commentator Iishvarakrs’n'a, a follower of Kapila, was born much later.
So there existed no particular philosophy in Krs’n'a’s time in the light of which Krs’n'a’s activities could be judged.
Sa’m'khya philosophy is accepted as the oldest school of philosophy. Kapila, its founder, declared as its principal idea that the fundamental elements which make up the jagat [the world], the jiivas [microcosms] and Iishvara [God] have been specifically enumerated; that is, the world is a composite of those twenty-four elements. (Those elements were not elements in the sense in which contemporary science uses the word.)
In Sa’m'khya philosophy, for practical purposes recognition was given to God as Janya Iishvara*.
But the main role of director of the universal drama in the flow of creation was assigned to Prakrti [the Operative Principle], and thus She was given another name as well — Pradha’na [Foremost].
The presence of Purus’a [Consciousness] is like that of a catalytic agent.
* Janya Iishvara may be called “the Entity instrumental for creation” (see pp. 28-29). A derivation of the term using janya in a different sense will be discussed below. –Eds.
As far as human history can say, Maharshi Kapila was the propounder of the world’s first school of philosophy, Sa’m'khya philosophy. As a result he was known as a’dividva’n [the first scholar].
The people of that age did not possess an intellect subtle enough to probe deeply into things.
Thus it would not be proper to find fault with them or condemn them in harsh language.
They simply started moving towards Parama Purus’a without possessing any philosophical knowledge about Him.
Pu’rva Mima’m’sa’ school of philosophy also does not admit the existence of Parama’tman.
Kapila, the propounder of the Sa’mkhya philosophy, accepted A’tman and the Vedas, but he did not believe in Parama’tman.
But as a result of clash and cohesion in the process of introversion, intellect developed. The eternal questions arose in people’s minds.
Who am I?
Where did I come from?
Where to go?
Their first intellect said, ‘Who am I?’
They got the reply, ‘His; thou comest from Parama Purus’a.’
‘Where to go?’
The second reply also was given, that is, ‘Parama Purus’a is that Desideratum.’ But there came another question.
‘Who art Thou ?
Who are You, O Parama Purus’a’ ?
Now, at this point philosophy comes.
According to the records of human history, the first philosopher was Mahars’i Kapila. He lived about 3500 years ago.
(It should be remembered that metaphysics had already emerged by that time, for Jainism and Buddhism were propounded after the great sage Mahars’i Kapila.)
Thus the worship of Shiva-liunga was introduced about 2500 years ago.
But the phallic worship of the pre-historic age, and the worship of Shiva-liunga in medieval India (around 2250 years ago), were not the same.
The latter, invested with a novel philosophical and spiritual significance, awakened a new trend of human thought.
The people of that time started worshipping Shiva-liunga with a new outlook, just as they gave new significance to the Tiirthaunkaras.
The intention behind the prehistoric phallic worship, as I have already said, was the worshippers’ earnest desire to increase their numbers because they had to fight day and night to survive.
But in later times, when Shiva-liun-ga worship was introduced in Jain Tantra, Buddhist Tantra, and Post-Shiva Tantra, it received a new interpretation, Liungate gamyate yasmin talliungam ["The entity towards which all things are moving is liungam"].
If we study the annals of ancient history we notice that after the first sprouting of human civilization, the first person who developed philosophy was Mahars’i Kapila, about 3500 years ago.
But Mahars’i Kapila’s interpretation regarding Purus’a as the Cognitive Faculty was not very clear, because he believed in the doctrine of the plurality of Purus’as. According to him, there are as many Purus’as as there are a’tmans (souls), and thus in each and every unit consciousness there is a Purus’a or Cognitive Faculty.
Then what is the difference between the Janya Iishvara as described by Mahars’i Kapila and the other Purus’as? This question remained unanswered.