THE COMMUNE SYSTEM & ITS PSYCHO-SOCIAL DEFECTS (notes on spiritual and social philosophy)
What is a Commune?
A commune is a kind of multi-purpose socio-economic organization in Red China to organize, managem, promote and expand various activities of people in rural areas.
A commune plays its role in a particular area in:
- establishing and managing industries,
- augumenting the production and cultivation of agriculture,
- multiplying commerce and trade,
- expanding education,
- organizating military affairs and
According to Mao: “It is good to set up people’s Communes: Their advantage is that they combine industry, agriculture, commerce, education and military affairs, making the task of leadership easier.”
A student of history will read about the Paris Commune, dated back to 1871 in a completely different socio-political back-ground of France.
But the commune movement in Red China in the 50’s has a different approach and purpose to revive and re-organize the rural economy and rural society under a centralized leadership and on a large-scale.
The so called “great leap forward” gave impetus to the birth and expansion of peoples’ communes.
Each commune is a combination of three component organizational structures:
(b) Production brigade
(c) Production team
Each has its own role at different levels and with various degrees of responsibilities. In ownership the people’s commune has three levels – commune, brigade and production. The nature of ownership in a commune is socialist collective ownership.
The lowest body among these three is the production team.
Commune and multi-lateral development of human beings
With the further analysis of the commune system it becomes clear that this kind of social body is set up mainly for economic purpose and partly for educational and cultural development. Major thrust being on economy only, other aspects of human life in a commune are bound to be either suppressed or neglected. It can not be an ideal social organization for the multi-lateral development of human beings. Multi-lateral development of human being implies proper progress of human life in all its three strata (physical, mental and spiritual) and five sub-strata (social, economic, political, cultural and psycho-spiritual) and five sub-strata(social, economic, political,cultural and psycho-spiritual) to attain integrated personality.
But a commune is a social body, organized by the communists. They believe in Marxism, disbelieve in spirituality, deny freedom of thought, discard individual liberty, regimentalize culture, indoctrinise education, practice totalitarianism in politics, apply violence in administration. All these lead to a dangerous concentration of political power, economic power, social power, and military power into one hand. This omnipotent power turns a ruler into tyrant dictator. Under such leadership and in such an abnormal regimented life-style, human personality can not enjoy freedom to develop multi-lateral virtures. So the commune system is not an ideal social condition for the multi-lateral development of human life.
Psycho-social defects of commune system
Any organization or social system has its direct bearing on the collective mind as well as on individual mind. Consequently, it must have its chain effects also on other spheres of the society.
Psychic defects of commune
The Commune System has no doubt increased production in farm-land, and industrial unit but it has made incalculable damages to the human mind. Its evil effects in human psyche are so follows:
- Mind becomes too much pre-occupied with physical needs and economic growth,
- Life becomes totally materialize, dominated by carbon atoms,
- Thoughts become regimented, through dogmatic indoctrination,
- Creative faculty gets suppressed,
- Fear-complex dominates the mind,
- Inter-and intra-ectoplasmic space decreases resulting in mental retardation.
- Spirituality is totally denied & discouraged,
- Lopsided growth under such a system goes counter to the principle of “Prama-Rddhi”.
- Mind suffers from baser propensities indulging in violence, intolerance, distrust, atheism, material enjoyment, sex, megalomania, etc.
Social defects of commune
Society is the collective expression of human life with mutual co-operation, trust, love and understanding. Its inherent spirit lies in the collective movement of all the human beings from their first-expression of morality to their final establishment in the supreme cognitive faculty. Marching together with uniformed rhythm and all-round expression of life is the fundamental spirit of the society: “Sa’manam ejati iti sama’ja”.
But in a commune system society is reduced to a production-distribution centre under a militarized law and order, accompanied by production teams.
In such a suffocative and mechanized living system deeply engrossed in materialistic outlook and desperately guided by atheistic leadership commune society gets affected with so many evils.
In such a system,
- Society turns into a military barrack.
- Social life degenerates into farm-life or factory-life
- Social relation corrupts into economic relation,
- Society suffers from class-division. Those who are party-leaders enjoy all privileges and the rest are left in suffering, suppression, scarcity and repressive sub-ordination.
- Distrust, fear, sub-ordination and the shadow of constant surveillance, ominously pervades the society.
- Absence of spirituality and the freedom of thought destroy the balance of Prama’ in the society.
So, the commune system fails to provide ideal conditions for all-round growth of human life. It suffers from so many inherent psycho-social defects.