“1967 – SÁDHANÁ & MOKŚA”
HARA- PÁRVATII SAMVADA
SHRII SHRII ÁNANDAMÚRTI
July 1967, Delhi, INDIA
Once Párvatii posed a question to Shiva “Who is competent for Mokśa? Who can attain Mokśa?” Then Shiva answered -
Atmajinn anam idaḿ devi paraḿ moksaeka Sádhanám;
Sukrtaermanavo bhutva jinn aniicenmoksamapnuyat.
When a question is put for Spiritual practice and Spiritual progress – the question not simply for inquiry sake but for the sake of understanding and following, such questions are known as Pariprashna – the questions put by disciples to their gurus as to how to sit, how to bid Pranama, how to repeat Mantra etc.—“Pranipatena, Pariprashnena Sevaya.” Where question is put only for logic-sake that is not Pariprashna. In such questions the time of the questioner and the answerer is wasted.
Somewhere, some question is put not to know but to test the scholarship of the Guru –such questions also are not Pariparashna. If Pariprashnas are put and answered and then if they be recorded, or, the people get acquainted with such questions and answers, they will be benefited in future.
But, during the time of Sadáshiva, nobody was there to put such questions.
Párvatii learnt Sádhaná from Shiva and their son Bhaerava also learnt Sádhaná from Him. Párvatii and Shiva decided that the former will pose the questions, and the latter would reply. And thus, people will get acquainted with the questions and answers and be benefited.
They had decided to have questions and answers for the all-round development of the human society. They decided this in the case of all branches of knowledge such as – Art, Architecture, Literature, Medical Science, Spiritual Science, etc. As for example, you know that in ancient times there was song. (Giita). There was sound all-around and people were performing some Mudras through hands and feet unknowningly.
So, Lord Shiva and Párvatii decided to adjust Giita, Sound and Mudra’. Thus Párvatii began to pose questions and Shiva answered. And the Saḿgiita – Shastra [science of music] was produced.
The combined name of Nrtya , Giita and Vadya is Saḿgiita.
In pretty-primitive age there was dance. This dance was rhythmic. Even still the dances of the soldiers is chiefly rhythmic. There will not be chief role of Mudra in it. This is the rule.
Rhythmic dance requires strength. Only males can do it; as it is tiresome. Párvatii gave Lalita- Nrtya which is having chief role of Mudra. Indian dances, Oriental dances are Mudra- Pradhana. And Occidental dances are rhythmic –
They decided to categorize Mudra. Thus, Párvatii questioned and Shiva answered.
Párvatii asked, “What is the meaning of such and such Mudra?” and Shiva replied. So Mudra Shástra was made, Saḿgiita Shástra was made. Shiva composed his rhythmic dance and Párvatii made a dance dominated by Mudra. In the rhythmic dance of Shiva one has to jump. In Saḿskrta ‘Tand́u’ means “to jump”.
As the rice jumps in the process of its preparation from paddy (the nature of rice is to jump) therefore in Saḿskrta it is called Tandula. Tandula means uncooked rice – cooked rice in Odana.
So the dance dominated by jumping (Tandu) is known as Tand́ava. Dance of Shiva is Tandava – “dominated by jumping”.
That which directly touches the mind is Mudra. As for instance, if one calls a man, he physically hears it. But through the gesture of fingers (Mudra) also he knows. So is the case in the expression of the feeling of perspiration, not speaking, the feeling of thirst etc. through different physical gestures. Hence, Mudra is Shanta bhava.
It is just the reverse to Tand́ava. This is known as Lalita.
The posture of sitting which gives you Madhura- Bhava in body is known as Lalita- Mudra or Lalitasana. You will see different idols of Gods and Goddesses in ancient time sitting on lotus in Lalita-Mudra.
Those who were superior to the mass they were known as Deva’ta in ancient times.
In, Rudrayamala Tantra
Sarve ca pashavah santi talavad bhutale narah;
Tesaḿ jinana prakashaya viirabhavah prakashitam.
Viirabhavaḿ sada prapya kramena devata bhavet
When the people were being taught Tand́ava and Lalita, they were feeling
difficulty in both of them.
In Tandava, they felt troubled in jumping and in Lalita in expressing their Bhava [ideation] through Mudras.
Therefore, they requested Lord Shiva and Párvatii to bring about an adjustment between both of them. Párvatii posed some questions, Shiva replied and some adjustment was done for the good of the people. The new dance thus produced was called Tala – “Ta” from Tand́ava and “La” from Lalita.
In spiritual practice only a few get the chance to listen to spiritual knowledge and among them only a few understand. And fewer are there among them who follow the path. And a counted few among the followers reach the goal. Therefore, it is difficult.
Párvatii got the opportunity to ask, listen to, and Shiva made here understand also.
The questions of Párvatii can be named as PHILOSOPHICO-SPIRITUAL CULT.
It is the combination of all the three – Philosophy, Pariprashna, and Spiritual practice, along with Shiva’s practical answers.
The questions of Párvatii are known as Nigama Shastra, and the answers of Shiva as Ágama Shastra.
The combined name of Ágama and Nigama is Tantra.
“Agataḿ Shivavaktrebhyoh Gatain ca Girijashrutao;
Matainn ca Vasudevasya tasmadagama ucyate”.
Agataḿ Shivavaktrebhyoh means “Shiva’s answers”.
The first letter of Agataḿ is ‘A’, and “Gatain ca Girijashrutao” – Girija means Párvatii, Shruti means ear – that which has gone into the ears of Párvatii – the first letter is ‘Ga’.
And “Matam ca Vasudevasya” – this is Lord’s thought – the first letter is ‘Ma’. ‘Tasmat agama ucyate’ – therefore it is known as A’- Ga- Ma, that is, A’gama.
Párvatii’s question was, “Who is competent to get Mokśa?” Shiva replied –
“Atmajinanam idaḿ devi paraḿ moksa eka Sádhanám;
Sukrtaermanavo bhutva jinaniicenmoksamapnuyat”.
Mokśa is Atmajinana (Self-Realization). What is Self-Realization?
“Atmajinana” means “Self-realization” – not “Self-Knowledge”. Suppose you know of a flower.
In this, there are three – the knower, you; the known, the flower; and knowledge, the link between you and the flower.
But in the case of Self-Realization – Knower, Known, Knowledge all are one.
You know your Self, Knower and known are one. The link between Knower and known is Knowledge and there is no question of even a link there.
If two banks of a river become one, then where is the space in between? Self-realization itself is Mokśa.
What happens there is oneness. Oneness means visualizing Brahma in all objects.
Therefore, Self-Realization is Mokśa. And who is competent to get Mokśa?
‘Sukrtaermanavo bhutva jinn anii caena moksamapnuyat –
“When one attains manhood because of good actions, he becomes competent
(Adhikarii) to attain Mokśa.”
What is the meaning of Sukrti?
In Laokik Saḿskrta, ‘Su’ means “good” and ‘Krta’ means “that which is done”. But in Vaedika Saḿskrta, ‘Su’ means ‘Sva’ – that is, when Jiivá attains Manhood due to his own actions he become fit to attain Mokśa.
What is the stage of Mánava (Man)?
I remember to have told you in Allahabad Dharma Maha Cakra(DMC) that manhood is obtained after reaching a particular standard of intellectuality. Lower than this status is animal and inanimate objects.
In this status, the spirit is personal and the medium impersonal. Animal and inanimate objects progress due to impersonal medium. Therefore they progress only – they don’t have downfall. If, man, with a particular intellectual standard, makes good use of his intellect, he will have progress; if he abuses the same he will have a downfall.
So man has intellect, but the intellect is double-edged. Therefore, one must be very careful while making use of his intellect.
Nigama is the collection of all the possible questions of unit minds and Ágama is the collection of the answers of those questions (Pariprashna).
Once Párvatii posed a question to Shiva — actually it was not her question but just to make the people understand the desideratum of their life, she posed the question to Shiva. The question asked was, “Who should be the object of worship for those who are doing Sádhaná?”
Man, according to his own intellectual standard, creates the object of his worship.
The primitive man worshipped plants, trees, earth and rivers, etc. It is not logical that by taking dip in the Ganges one can acquire Punya and not from his dip in the Thames. If Punya is there – it can be from both, the Ganges and the Thames.
Can there be no Punya by taking a dip in the Yamuna which also originates like the Ganges from the Himalayas and runs side by side with the Ganges? Somebody worships stones – they make idols with stone according to their imaginations and go on worshipping it. How can the idol give you salvation – the idol made by you?
With different chisels and hammers you have shaped the idol – you are its father, you are its Creator – how then can it be able to give you salvation? It is all unscientific.
“Manasa kalpita murti nrnaḿ cen moksa sadhanii;
Svapnalabdhena rajyena rajanomanavastatha”.
The reply of Shiva is as follows. One cannot obtain the unlimited from the limited.
Secondly, idol worship is more harmful than the worship of the flora and fauna;
because the flora and fauna have been created and shaped by the Operative Principle, and not by human beings. Plants and trees are on growth.
Idol has been created and shaped by you, by your chisel and hammer – how can it give you salvation?
” Párvatii then said, “That too is Sádhaná?”
Shiva replied, “Yes, that is.”
Whatever is there in the world, it is all the manifestation of Paramátmá. Nothing is hateful – neither cap nor the shoes. They have got their respective use. If you place the shoes on the head and cap under your feet, people will see and laugh and take it to be madness.
True, both are Paramátmá, but both of them have their proper uses.
The proper use of Paramátmá in the form of shoes is under the feet.
The earth is also the manifestation of Paramátmá. You address it as “Mother Earth”.
But you set your feet on it. Meaning thereby that, you should do proper behavior with the proper object. You must have reverence for the Ganges, as the land in North India has been made fertile by its waters. But there cannot be any Punya out of its water – Salvation cannot be obtained with it.
“Men make their objects of worship according to their Intellectual standards” – so said Shiva. In that too, there is Matra- Bheda [difference in degree] and Stara-Bheda (Different standards).
Lord Shiva’s answer was –
Uttamo Brahmasadbhavo madhyama dhyanadharana;
(Uttama Sahajavastha madhyama dhyanadharana;
[An acceptable alternative version of the shloka reads] Uttama sahajavastha.
Idol worship is also a Sádhaná, but that is the lowest sort of Sádhaná. It is because everything has its effect and hence the idol has its own. Your mind will get itself confined to the limitations of the idol. Man will perform Sádhaná in order to expand his mind to infinity.
Japastuti is Adhama- Sádhaná. There is no real love with Paramátmá; but it is simply Stuti. They address Paramátmá and say, “O Paramátmá, you give food to us and clothes to wear.” You will find some such things on some –where. This is flattery.
Stuti means “flattery”. Paramátmá is Supreme Father. Will you do flattery before him?
Suppose a student is studying in MA. During holidays he has come home. If he, standing before his father, begins saying, “O Father, you are so merciful! Every month you send money for me. You are making me study in MA.”
If such things are uttered, the father will say that the son has gone vagabond, and catching hold of him will give him good beatings. Just think for yourself how unnatural this is. Flatter you may your boss not to your father! Hence, Japa- Stuti is Adhama – Sádhaná.
Japa really means Nirbiija. Sabiija Japa is a different thing; that comes within the scope of Dhyána.
This I will make you understand later.
That is connected with Sádhaná and so it is not proper to speak openly. You are repeating “Krśńa, Krśńa” – a parrot can also do that! Can there be spiritual progress with that? Never – because there is no ideation with the meaning. That will be Mantra devoid of Caetanya.
Hence, one has to Ideate.
By taking Ideation, elevation can be possible.
Ideation may be either reverence or irreverence – (Shraddhaya helaya va).
“Paramátmá is my Father and hence I am repeating His name” – elevation is bound to occur. “Paramátmá is displeased with me and though I am His son He does not look to me. Paramátmá is very cruel — will fight against Him.” – Still you repeat Paramátmá. This is irreverence.
Either with reverence or with irreverence, the desideratum must be Paramátmá. Dhruva and Prahlad were votaries of Paramátmá.
And so was Ravana. Ravana repeated Paramátmá’s name with irreverence. But the fact is that irreverence does not last to the last.
Suppose one goes on repeating “Krśńa”, but the idea is also there that he has to go to Meerut to-morrow, that one has to file a case against So-n-so and again he repeats “Krśńa”.
A day after tomorrow there is DMC – I have to attend it in Delhi. And he repeats again “Krśńa, Krśńa”. What is this on? Is it a show?
Next is Dhyána-Dharana. It is Madhyama. Dhyána is Taeladharavat. The mind moves towards Paramátmá is Dhyána – it is Madhyama – because there is duality between the Sádhakas and the object of his worship. Hence it is Madhyama. And the Supreme State, Uttamavastha, is that where the Sádhaka and the object of his worship are one – the worshipper, the worshipped and the worship unify themselves into one.
Therefore, Sahajavastha is Supreme, Uttama.
This is the saying of Shiva.
Kabirji has also said Sádhu Sahaja Samádhi bhalii [“The seeker attained Sahaja samadhi”].
Saha+Jan+Da – Saḿskrta root is Jan+Da. “Jan” means that which is born. With which is it born?
Jiivátmá and Paramátmá are born together. They are together – Jiivás simply do not look to Him. One thinks that Paramátmá is without and so he is not able to attain Him.
When looked within, there is oneness. This alone is Sahajavastha. It means He who is easily to be attained.
Sahaja means easy.
Bear it in mind that the process of Iishvara Pranidhana in Ánanda Marga comes within the scope of Dhyana-Dharana – in Iishvara Pranidhana there are so many mental processes. Hence Sahajavastha is Uttama.
Now for this Sahajavstha, there is nothing to be had from without – everything can be had from within.
Diiksa [spiritual initiation] means a march towards within.
This eternal march has to be learnt. This alone is Diiksa.
Those who roam about looking for Paramátmá without and offer water to Him – all these people are roaming without instead of looking within. It is as if there is much food grains at home and one is begging outside. All of you are very rich; there is much wealth within. Then why will you roam without?
Therefore Lord Shiva said to Párvatii, “O Devii, just see –”
Idaḿ tiirtham idaḿ tiirthaḿ bhramanti tamasah janah;
Atmatiirthaḿ na jananti kathaḿ moksa varanane.
This pilgrimage is here, if one takes a dip into a particular Kunda or in a particular river he will have this much of Punya – all is false. If there is Punya by taking bath in the Kunda then all the creatures in the water of the Kunda will get heaven. And all the kund́as which you see now-a-days in different pilgrimage are full of stinking water!
Those who take bath with such ideas are people dominated by the Static Principle.
Their condition is, as Lord Shiva told Párvatii, to make her understand, just like
Atma Shivaḿ Parityaktva vahisthaḿ yah samarcayet;
Hastasthaḿ pind́amutsrjya bhramate jiivitashaya.
Those who are performing Puja outside, in the temples and worshipping the Shiva of the stone, and the Shiva inside is left unworshipped within, are like
Hastasthaḿ pind́amutsrjya bhramate jiivitashaya
Pind́a means eatables. That which is known as Anna (Ata+Kta) in later Saḿskrta language is called Pind́a in Vaedika language.
I remember to have told that you that in the times of yore, when the Aryans from Russia came to India they started Cultivation.
The border of Bharata is “Saptanada Desha”, which later on came to be known as the Punjab.
These seven rivers are Jhelam, Cenab, Satluj, Ravi, Vyas, Kabul and Sindhu.
The people of that place were sitting together at noon and taking meals i.e., taking Pind́a.
The place where the farmers were taking meals was called Pindikika. That Pindiika in Paeshaci-Prakrta became Pindii-a. This is old Punjabi changed to Pindae- Pindii.
In Punjab language, Pindi means village. As for instance, Rawalpindi – the inhabitation of Rawals.
Lord Shiva said that those persons are verily fools who, throwing off the food in the hand wander to different doors and beg.
Then Parvati asked, “Now it is clear.
But please let me know the qualifications are which should be possessed by a Sadhaka Then came out seven points from Shiva’s lips. Again Parvati asked, “What those seven points are? All will try to acquire those seven points if they are to be successful”.
Phaliśyatiiti vishvásah siddherprathama lakśańam;
Dvitiiyaḿ shraddhayá yuktaḿ trtiiyaḿ gurupújanam;
Caturtho samatábhávo paiṋcamendriyanigrahah;
Śaśt́haiṋca pramitáháro saptamaḿnaeva vidyate.
Phaliśyatiiti vishvásah siddherprathama lakśańam; – “‘I must be successful in my mission.’ This firm determination is the first requisite factor.”
Dvitiiyaḿ shraddhaya yuktaḿ. – There must be Shraddha for the object towards
which one is moving.”
Then Párvatii asked, “What is Shraddha?”
Shiva then replied, “Shrat Satyaḿ tasmin dhiiyate iti Shraddha”.
“Shrat” means “Satya”, Absolute Reality, Parama Tattva.
Dha means “to march towards That”.
Absolute Reality as his Desideratum, when man will move towards It,and will little care either for praise or for condemnation, this sort of movement towards the Absolute Reality is Shraddha.”
The third one is “Gurupujanam” – that is, Shraddha for the personality from whom Sádhaná has been obtained.
The fourth one is “Samatabhava”. You have performed Sádhaná and some occult powers are obtained by you — you feel that you are a bit above X, Y, and Z, and that you are not an ordinary man – if this feeling creeps into the mind, Samatabhava is lost, because then he begins feeling that there is a group of people far inferior to him.
Such things are noticed in the case of the people who have come to the town from the village. They say that they don’t feel like returning to the village, as the villagers are illiterate and much under-developed. This feeling is very dangerous. If such feelings creep into the mind as a result of a little intellectual knowledge, the chances of this complex are much more in the realm of spirituality, when a Sádhaka begins feeling somewhat developed with the development of some occult powers and the feeling of a
little bliss. In the second stage of spiritual practice every Sadhaka gets this stage.
One must be very, very cautious, so that vanity may not develop. For vanity what a Sádhaka will do is -
Gaoravaḿ raoravaḿ dhruvam;
Trayaḿ tyaktva Hariḿ bhajet”.
Vanity is no better than drinking wine. Sense of Prestige is verily like Raurava – Hell. The highest Loka is Satyaloka and the lowest Loka is Raurava.
One who suffers from superiority complex is converted into stone – he will be crudified to the extent of this.
This is the result of the feeling of superiority complex.
One’s sense of honor is like Shukarii-vist́ha. “I will be at the pinnacle of society and people will pay respect to me” – this sense is like Shukarii-vist́ha.
Henc, give up these three mental ailments – (Abhimana, Gaorava and Pratist́ha) – and then engage yourself in the contemplation on Hari.
‘Samata- Bhava’- The fourth one is Samata-Bhava,
“Sarve Samadrstidrastavyam atmavat tasmat atmavibhedhana”, As you are, so the people remaining with you should also be.
Caturtho Samatabhavo Paincamendriyanigrahah.
The fifth one is Indriya- Nigraha, self-restraint.
Sast́hainn ca pramitaharo. Pramitahara – There is a difference between Pramitahara and Parimitahara.
“Parimitahara” means “Controlled diet” and “Pramitahara” means “Balanced diet”. The food should be balanced diet for the body. Only control will not do. Controlling the quantity of meals will not do – one will have to take balanced diet for making the body and mind strong. Meals should be substantial, though less in quantity. This is “Pramitahara”.
Saying the sixth factor, Shiva kept quiet.
Then Párvatii asked, “What’s the seventh factor?” Shiva then replied, “Saptamaḿ naeva vidyate”. – “There is no seventh factor.
If these six factors are borne in mind, there must be progress.”